How Does Spinal Cord Injury Physiotherapy Improve Mobility and Function?

Estimated read time 5 min read

A spinal cord injury can dramatically impair mobility and daily functioning. However, with the correct rehabilitation strategy, spinal cord injury physiotherapy can help enhance a person’s mobility and independence. Let us investigate how physiotherapy treatments and exercises can improve mobility and function for people with spinal cord injuries. 

Exercises that improve range of motion

One of the key objectives of spinal cord injury physiotherapy is to maintain or enhance the range of motion in the joints below the damaged area. Without frequent stretching and exercise, joints can stiffen over time. Physiotherapists will create a range of motion programs that are specific to the individual. Gentle stretches are performed daily to assist prevent contractures and maintain joint flexibility. Range of motion exercises are an important component of any spinal cord injury rehabilitation program.

Strengthening Exercises

Even partial paralysis due to a spinal cord injury can cause muscle weakness. Targeted strength exercises are essential for recovering muscle control and power. Physiotherapists will determine which muscle groups have been injured and devise an exercise program. Strengthening activities may include lifting light weights, utilizing resistance bands, or performing bodyweight exercises. As strength improves with time, therapists increase the resistance in the workouts. Stronger muscles enable greater mobility and freedom during transfers and other daily duties.

Balance and Coordination Training

Balance and coordination training can help people with partial spinal cord injuries function better. Physiotherapists employ several approaches to test and develop these abilities. Examples include standing on unstable surfaces such as foam pads, walking heel-to-toe along lines, and practicing controlled stepping motions. Balance exercises gradually advance from needing support bars to standing freely. Coordination work may include reaching, gripping items at various heights, or controlled stepping with ball exercises. Improved balance and coordination allow for more confident movement throughout the community.

Gait Training

Many people with partial spinal cord injuries hope to regain their ability to walk. Gait training entails intense physiotherapy centered on optimal walking form and skills. Therapists will determine which assistive aids, such as walkers or braces, are required first. Exercises begin simply, such as practicing weight transfers or controlled stepping in place. Walking practice increases in length and speed as strength and mobility improve. Therapists offer input on topics such as good posture, equal weight bearing, and coordinated stepping patterns. With consistent gait training, aided walking can evolve to walking freely, with or without mobility assistance.

Wheelchair Skill Training

Individuals with total injuries who require full-time wheelchair use require wheelchair skills training to maintain independence. Therapists teach techniques such as propelling effectively, maneuvering in tight places, rising and descending obstacles, and transferring safely. Training entails practicing skills at progressively higher levels of difficulty. Exercises may focus on wheelies, controlled stopping, and navigating various terrains and surfaces. Mastering wheelchair abilities increases confidence in community mobility and daily activities. It also helps to reduce injuries caused by inappropriate wheelchair use.

Outcome and Maintenance

With a targeted rehabilitation program, spinal cord injury physio can result in considerable increases in mobility and function over time. Realistic long-term goals may include autonomous transfers, brief walks, and regular routines. Ongoing maintenance physiotherapy is also required to maintain abilities. Home workout programs help to maintain mobility in between sessions. Therapists will keep an eye out for potential secondary issues and make any necessary modifications. Individuals with spinal cord injuries can improve their quality of life over time by receiving ongoing physiotherapy. 

Yoga and Mind/Body Techniques 

Using mind-body therapies such as yoga can help in spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Yoga focuses on breathing, regulated movement, and relaxation, all of which can help alleviate stress and anxiety associated with injury. Gentle yoga postures modified for wheelchairs or mats increase flexibility, balance, and strength. Meditation breathing techniques may also aid with pain management. A preliminary study indicates that mind-body approaches promote physical and psychological well-being throughout recovery. Yoga is a low-impact supplemental treatment that therapists may recommend in conjunction with core physiotherapy.

Sports and Leisure Activities

Once basic mobility is established, physiotherapists can assist patients in safely participating in sports and pastimes that promote an active lifestyle. Seated volleyball, wheelchair basketball, adaptive cycling, and swimming are all fun ways to stay fit. Therapists advise clients on equipment, safety precautions, and injury avoidance for a variety of activities. Community sports leagues provide social support and incentives. Pursuing leisure pursuits can help you retain your well-being and quality of life after an injury. Therapists can also connect patients with local adaptive recreation programs.

Conclusion

Spinal cord injury physiotherapy uses a variety of approaches to improve mobility and independence following injury. A tailored rehabilitation program in  Ayurdha Rehab that focuses on a range of motion, strength, gait training, and functional abilities can greatly improve function. Therapists also use treatments as needed. Individuals with spinal cord injuries who receive regular short and long-term physiotherapy have a better chance of regaining movement and doing everyday activities independently.

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